This is a question that I haven't given much thought, at least for the last few years. Then, less than two weeks ago, a three-month-old boy died suddenly. Because his mother has attended our church recently and because they live in the community, I was asked to speak at the funeral. It was my privilege. It was also difficult.
This got me thinking about where infants go when they die. Many people quickly (almost automatically) answer this question by saying that all babies who die go to heaven. Keep in mind that many people who say this have no biblical basis for saying it. They give this answer because it makes them feel better about the situation.
But what does the bible tell us?
Based on what I have studied, I do not think the bible addresses this issue directly. In other words, there is no direct statement about the issue.
Despite this, we can come to conclusions based on broad teachings of scripture.
First, we know that only the elect go to heaven. There are arguments over how a person comes to be part of the elect, but I think all Christians agree that only the elect are saved.
Second, we know that sin (rebellion against the revealed will of God) separates us from God. It is our sin that causes us to deserve hell. Although we are corrupt at the point of conception, it is this corruption acted out as sin that actually merits us hell. Romans 6:23 is clear on this.
Keeping the above two concepts in mind, what conclusion can we come to? We know that infants do not sin (toddlers, on the other hand, are good at rebelling by saying, "No!") Infants, therefore, do nothing to deserve separation from God.
If the above is true - and it seems to be - then it must be true that all infants who die are of the elect. If they are all elect, then they must go to heaven when they die.
This is one of those difficult issues where we must show restraint and humility when giving answers. Compounding the difficulty of this question is the fact that it is obviously very emotionally-charged.
In the end, I believe that all infants who die go to heaven. I think I'm correct, but I humbly submit that I'm also not certain.